→ This is simply a personal opinion (reasoning is below).
→ It is exclusively for informative purposes. There especially cannot be established a correlation between a high number of specialities and a high winrate on 1v1 Arabia ! (The civ. with most specialities performs actually worse than the civ. with the least ones – on all skill levels!)
→ The official civ. descriptions are in bold.
Aztecs_________ infantry and monks
Berbers________ cavalry, cavalry archers and navy
Britons_________ infantry, archers, trebuchets and keeps
Bulgarians_____ infantry, cavalry, cavalry archers, siege and kreposts
Burgundians___ cavalry and gunpowder units
Burmese_______ infantry, elephants, arambai and monks
Byzantines_____ cavalry, monks, defenses and navy
Celts___________ infantry and siege
Chinese________ archers, towers and demolition ships
Cumans________ cavalry and cavalry archers
Ethiopians______ archers and siege
Franks_________ infantry, paladins and castles [cavalry]
Huns___________ cavalry, cavalry archers and trebuchets
Incas___________ infantry, slingers and defenses
Indians_________ camels, cavalry archers and hand cannoneer [gunpowder]
Italians_________ infantry, archers, gunpowder units and navy
Japanese_______ infantry, cavalry archers, trebuchets, keeps and navy
Khmer___________ elephants and scorpions [siege]
Koreans_________ war wagon, onagers, towers and navy [defensive]
Lithuanians______ cavalry and monks
Magyars_________ cavalry and cavalry archers
Malay____________ infantry, elephants and navy
Malians__________ infantry and cavalry
Mayans__________ eagles, archers and walls
Mongols_________ cavalry, cavalry archers and siege
Persians_________ cavalry and elephants
Portuguese______ infantry, gunpowder units and navy
Saracens________ camels, archers, cavalry archers, siege, monks and navy
Sicilians_________ infantry, donjons and navy
Slavs____________ infantry, cavalry, siege and monks
Spanish_________ infantry, cavalry, gunpowder units, monks and navy
Tatars___________ cavalry, cavalry archers, flaming camels and trebuchets
Teutons__________ infantry, paladins, siege, monks and castles
Turks____________ cavalry, cavalry archers, gunpowder and navy
Vietnamese______ archers and elephants
Vikings__________ infantry and navy
→ In case there’s a bonus for a certain unit type, it’s typically a civ. speciality, even if normally crucial techs are missing. Britons lack thumb ring, Mongols the last archer defence upgrade and Goths three (!) infantry techs, one of which – defence – isn’t even replaced by a bonus for this. Inverse exception : celt castles and keeps which shoot faster are still worse than normal castles and keeps with bracer and architecture, thus are excluded as specialisation.
→ If there cleary is only one unit that is fully upgraded and/or benefits from a bonus, this unit becomes the specialisation instead of all the unit type. The frank cavalry is composed of an excellent paladin and a very underwhelming light cavalry (except in early feudal) ; thus the frank speciality is mostly the paladin. In the same spirit the khmer siege workshop isn’t that impressive except for the scorpion (the ballisata elephant is a scorpion mounted on an elephant)…
-Infantry, fully upgraded champion and halberdier (« supplies » included!), are sufficiently rare that I consider it a civ. speciality.
-The presence of everything but one in the siege workshop plus « siege engineers » means a siege civ.
-Everything but the last archer defence upgrade means a cavalry archer civ.
-The simultaneous presence of « elite cannon galleon » and « shipwright » means a naval civ.
-Everything is needed in the monastery for monks. (Except herbal medicine – Byzantine monks heal faster anyway).
-Flaming camels actually hardcounter cavalry archer units like the mangudaï. They even perform decent against most archers due to their low HP, little armor and typically high stacking. Thus I include them. This means I also include the Chinese heavy demo ships.
→ The Saracens have the most specialities (six!).
→ Goths have the least, just one. (At which they absolutely excel though!)
→ Finally, I want to stress again that the number of specialities cannot be directly related to a civilization’s strength. Indeed, according to aoestats.io, Saracens seem to struggle much more on 1v1 Arabia than Goths, and this, on any skill level.