Cavalry civ main here.
Played as Turks, Hindustanis, Magyars, or Tatars against the following opponents in my recent games, and I got done in by those guys.
Lithuanians, Britons, Bohemians, Celts, Goths, Italians, Byzantines, and Slavs.
Are they really that dangerous against civs that makes heavy use of mounted units? They all have a few things in common: bonuses for trash units, siege weapons, or UU that can make quick work of my mounted units
Lithuanians: Played as Hindustanis. Got attacked by Leitis and Skirms.
Britons: Played as Poles, made knights and Obuchs, all mowed by mass longbowmen.
Bohemian: played as Turks, got reckd with stronger halbs and faster hand cannoneers. The Bohemian was backed by a Byzantine player that made skirms and Cataphracts.
Celts: played as Tatars, pushed over by faster halberdiers and super siege weapons, in a Black Forest map.
Goths: played as Tatars, got overrun by huskarl and haberdier spam.
Italians: played as Turks, Genoese crossbow men and condortieri that can eat Turks.
Slavs: played as Cumans, remembered playing Michi once as Poles, the enemy Slav player cut through the trees with onagers and mass boyars and more infantry. To make things worse, another Sicilian player of the other side decimated my army with double gold comp of arbs and knights.
My army mainly consisted of light cavs, horse archers, knights, and whatever UU my civ offers.
How many times do plan to edit your post? Just out of curiosity.
tl:dr: OP struggles to deal with Halbs and to apply pressure early.
To answer your question, no, those civs are not broken.
Are you using skirms or archers to counter halberdiers?
In some games, archers. Others, skirms. Later, cav archers. Of course, some people made also made skirms and archers.
You may be interested in sharing your matches in reddit so they can coach you.
However, what I can figure from your defeats is that your matches tend to be long and your enemies have plenty of time to build their power house (UU are hard to mass, goth flood requires lots of resources, etc). Besides, you tend to use civs with good timings (turks free chemistry, tatars free parthian tactics,cuman cappes rams and double TC, etc) that you arent using if you wait too much before attacking
And since it seems that you mostly play very closed maps (michi, blackforest, etc), I advice to learn one of two tricks about unir formations, patrol and attack move, and the hotkeys to spam units nonstop from your production buildings. This is provided you have a full eco of 120 villagers or more.
Finally, there are some non-intuitive counters that you must learn:
Goth flood: militia line. Most times, your infantry will be better than theirs (they miss one armor tech). Hold with infantey while raiding the eco.
Longbows: rams. Those soak a lor of arrows and are a bit annoying for the briton player to micro against, so they are easy to target with siege or knights.
Condotiero: again, your infantry should be better. The only good thing of condotiero besides their gunpowder bonus is that they dont require upgrades, but they trade badly against champions (and maybe THS).