First of all im noob and playing only for fun.Mostly ottomans because im turk.İ will share my opinions on some historical inaccuracies in ottoman cavalry force.
The “tımar” system is a system established in the Ottoman Empire, where instead of paying salaries to soldiers and officials working on behalf of the state, land was allocated in return for their services.Since the early periods of the Ottoman Empire, the fundamental purpose of implementing this system has been to delegate the responsibility of maintaining order and collecting taxes in certain regions of public lands to the “sipahis” (cavalrymen), and to increase loyalty by assigning them the task of cultivating the land. Additionally, through this system, the Ottoman Empire was able to strengthen its sipahi (mounted soldier) force.
End of Tımar System
During periods when firearms and a monetary economy were not prevalent, the tımar system operated very effectively. However, with the widespread use of firearms, the system encountered disruptions. Recognizing the vulnerability of cavalry and sipahis against firearms, the administration began to emphasize the importance of the Janissaries.
The tımar system persisted until the early 19th century and was completely abolished with the Tanzimat Edict of 1839.
Ottoman Cavalry Force
Akıncı(Light Ottoman Cavalry)
Akıncılar were light cavalry units in the military organization of the Ottoman Empire, operating in border regions and engaging in raids and ambushes in enemy territories as part of a campaign of attrition.
During the campaigns of Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent in Buda and Austria, the number of Akıncı’s is recorded in historical sources of that period as 50,000.
The akıncıs, the vanguard force of the Ottoman army, maintained their strength until the mistake of Grand Vizier Sinan Pasha during the campaign in Wallachia in the year 1595.Sinan Pasha marched with 100,000 men against the Romanian voivode Michael, who had rebelled against the state. Crossing the army and supplies would take three days and three nights. Knowing that it was a tradition for the akıncıs to not surrender their weapons without a fight, Michael wanted to spill the akıncıs into the Danube waters by having them cross the lengthy bridge. When a few cannonballs hit the bridge, it collapsed, and thousands of akıncıs were submerged in the Danube waves. Several thousand akıncıs who had not yet crossed were martyred under enemy swords. Thus, the Turkish akıncı corps suffered a blow that it could never recover from.
Akıncı Sinan Bey vs Hungarian Knight Eugene
Sipahi(Heavy Ottoman Cavalry)
Tımarlı Sipahi formed the center of the army in the battle formation, positioned on the right and left flanks. In the strategy known as “Wolf Trap,” “Crescent Tactic,” or “Turkic Tactic,” their task was to encircle and engage the enemy forces that fell for the fake attacks and withdrawals of the light cavalry (akıncı). They would follow the deceptive moves of the akıncı, surround the attacking enemy units, and annihilate them in direct combat, completing the encirclement.
Two Sipahis at Battle of Vienna
*omplete 16th century Ottoman sipahi armor in attack position,
Kapikulu Sipahi(Elite Ottoman Cavalry)
Their duties during wartime included fighting alongside the Sultan on the right flank, defending the center of the army and the Sultan during tactical withdrawals, and in peacetime, protecting the Sultan and the palace.
First Photo Süleymanname 1526
Second Photo G. Jansoone Sipahis at the Battle of Vienna
Third Photo Amsterdam Hermitage Museum, Netherlands.
Fourth Photo Paris Musee de l’Armee des Invalides,France