New civ concept: The Wari

First of all, I don’t speak neither English nor Spanish as my native language. So please bear with me if I make any grammar or puctuation mistakes.
This is just a conceptual suggestion, that’s why the thread will only address bonuses, unique units and techs. Specific bonus values and the tech tree can always be tweaked for balance later.


The Wari or Huari

Why the Wari empire?

-It was the first empire of the Andes, the first true empire of the Americas, and the second largest empire in all the history of the New World.
-The Wari empire was a bronze age civilization that later united with the Tiwanaku.
-The Wari empire alone had a population of 3 million and encompassed about 700 000 km2. During the Tiwanaku-Wari period, the empire was approx. 1 300 000 km2 and the population is estimated around 5.2 million before their collapse by the end of the Middle Horizon era.
-Technically, they are already in-game as the Chankas (Inca campaign and history section) and somewhat as the Huancas (Inca history section).
-The Wari empire is unique and has enough personality to be a new civ. It was an aggresive expansionist andean empire populated by multi-ethnic people who spoke yunga, quechua and aymara.
-Among American civs: The Aztecs’ role is offensive infantry and monks. The Mayans’ role is offensive archers. The Incas’ role is counter units.
The Wari could take the offensive skirmishers and team support role.


Civ concept: Infantry and skirmishers.

-Infantry technologies are X% cheaper.
-Lumberjacks generate X gold per second while in gathering animation.
-Can build Pikillaqta and research: Andenes and Tiwanaku priests.

Unique units

  • Kunka Kuchuna (or Neck breaker): Fast infantry that increases his attack per hit. Stacks X times.

  • Chukiq Awqaruna (or Andean javelineer): Multipurpose skirmisher that also has attack bonus vs unique units. Available at the archery range since the Castle age.

Unique techs

  • Bronze tupus (Castle age): Skirmishers gain +1 meele armor and are trained X% faster.
  • Wiracocha cult (Imperial age): Eagle warriors regenerate X HP per min and attack X% faster.

Unique building
Pikillaqta: Highly resistant Wari settlement that can train villagers and trade carts, but can’t attack. It can increase the defense of nearby buildings by X%. Building it costs gold and stone. Available since the Castle age.

Team bonus
Barrack units +X LOS

Civ techs
Andenes (Feudal age): For the Wari, farms last X% longer. For all teammates, farms cost -5 wood. It can be researched at the mill.
Tiwanaku priests (Castle age): For the wari, monks regenerate their faith X% faster. For all teammates, monk-type units move 5% faster. It can be researched at the monastery.

Possible wonders:

-Huarmey castle.
-Wiracochapampa.
-Vegachayuq Moqo.
-Huaca Pucllana.
-Cahuachi.

Architecture: Andean (shared with the Incas).

Notes:
There is one reference to the Tiwanaku because of their confederation.
The andean javelineer perhaps could have +2 or 3 vs cavalry and eagles.

Historical background
Just if you are interested in reading it.

About the Wari (Chankas) from Aoe II:

The Inca were the rulers of the last great Amerindian empire of South America, and the creators of the largest Pre-Columbian state of the Americas. Originally a small tribe from the Cuzco region of Peru, the Inca formed a kingdom that by the early 15th century became a major power in the central Andes. In 1438, their power was challenged by the Kingdom of the Chanca, whose leader disliked their growing cultural supremacy. The Inca repelled the Chanca invasion and, in response, went on a massive uninterrupted period of expansion that lasted for nearly a century.
In 1438, the Inca Empire was established by Pachacuti Inca in the aftermath of the failed Chanca invasion.

About the Wari empire:

In the 16th century, Spanish conquistador and chronicler Pedro Cieza de León wrote «Cronicas del Peru», one of the most importart history and ethnography books about the New World in that century. Cieza de León describes pre-columbian ethnic groups and their achievements; which are known today as the Chimu and Chan-Chan city (chap. LXVIII), the Lima and Pachacamac temple (Chap. LXXII), the Nazca and the Nazca lines (chap. LXXV), the Chavin and Huantar temple (chap. LXXXII), and the Wari and Viñaque (chap. LXXXVII). This is the first mention of the Wari empire in scholar literature. In 1903, the German archaeologist Friedrich Max Uhle publishes «Pachacamac» after rigurous studies in Lurin valley. Because of new ceramic, metal and textile discoveries in the Andes, he was the first to suggest the Tiwanakus were trading with the north and allied with an unknown andean culture. Today, we know those artifacts belonged to the Wari. In 1935, the Peruvian archaeologist Julio C. Tello studied this unknown culture, today known as the Wari. In 1936, Julio C. Tello, together with prominent American archaeologists Alfred Kroeber, Samuel Lothrop, Wendell C. Bennett, and others established the Institute of Andean Research (IAR) to study the Wari and other andean cultures. In the middle of the 20th century, studies and archeological investigations led by Wendell C. Bennett and Rafael Larco Hoyle concluded the Wari culture was more advanced than Tiwanaku. In 1957, archaeologist Luis G. Lumbreras proposed the theory of the Wari being an empire. Later that same year, the archaeologist and anthropologist John H. Rowe submitted a theory that also supported the Wari imperial stage. In 1970, archaeologist Mario Benavides published his book Analisis de la Ceramica Huarpa about the Huarpa culture. In 1984, the archaeologist William Isbell discovered the Wari were older than what was originally thought, and the culture existed as early as the first century (around 100 CE). The architecture shows a long sequence of human occupation that would develop into the well-known Wari urbanism of the 6th century (around 550 CE). In 1988, the archaeologist Ruth Shady Solis published her article «La epoca Huari como interaccion de las sociedades regionales». She suspected that Wari wasn’t an empire, but an economic network that integrated other kingdoms for mutual benefit and supported them with its military. Later in 1997, William Isbell estimated that the early Wari had a population of 10 000-70 000 before their urbanism. In 2001, William Isbell proposed that the Huarpa culture is the early stage of the Wari and categorized it as Pre-Wari. In 2010, the Polish archaeologist Krzysztof Makowski becomes one of the researchers and advisors in The Huarmey Castle project (led by the Polish Milosz Giersz). In 2013, Krzysztof Makowski discovered 63 Wari tombs and more than 1200 artifacts including jewels, utensils, ceramics and bronze weapons. The Wari weren’t as peaceful as Ruth Shady thought. Makowski concludes Wari was without a doubt either an empire or an imperialistic expansionist state, however, he calls it a Failed Empire (from the “Failed State” term) because it was a rich and powerful empire that annexed other kingdoms through conquest but failed to impose the Wari dynastic identity on them. Unlike the Incas and the Chimu, which he calls successful. In 2019, the archaeologist Ismael Perez Calderon supports William Isbell’s theory and describes the Huarpa as the early stage of the Wari empire.

The Huarpa or early Wari period (approx. 200 BCE-500 CE)

The Huarpa culture was an early Wari society contemporary with the Moche, the Nazca, the Tiwanaku, the Recuay, and the Lima. The Huarpa lived in what is present-day Ayacucho, an arid mountain region surrounded by steep ridges and cliffs in the Andes. The dry and hard soil made it difficult to cultivate plants and raise livestock so, in order to survive, the Huarpa built complex systems of canals and andenes (terrace farms). Their towns lacked urban planning. The Huarpas built and expanded their villages and towns as their population grew.
From 100 AD, the Huarpa cities became more organized with identifiable separate residential and commercial areas. During this time, their population is estimated between 10 000 and 70 000.

The Wari culture period (approx. 500 CE-600 CE)

The Huarpa expanded their area of influence and engaged in commercial activities with coastal cultures like the Nazca of present-day Ica. Their fast economic growth was thanks to their works of artistic craftsmanship. Especially woodcraft, which the Huarpa traded for silver and gold that would later be used during their religious ceremonies held in honor of Kon (winged feline or puma god). As a consequence of needing more efficient government to sustain their expansion, the Huarpas abandoned their towns and founded the city of Wari.

Phase 1A:
After the foundation of the Wari city, the Wari quickly built several cities of similar size around Wari city to turn it into the capital. Simultaneously, several Wari merchants and craftsmen were sent across the altiplano (andean plateau of South America) in search of new trade routes. It is believed that during this period the Wari were influenced by the Tiwanaku religion and mythology. Therefore, Wari ceramics start to show noticeable Tiwanaku religious influence. The most representative ceramic styles being the «conchopata» and «chakipampa A».

The Wari empire period (approx. 600 CE-1200 CE)

Phase 1B:
This phase was characterized by the radical changes in the Wari socio-political structure. Wari cities grew uncontrollably due to massive migrations from rural areas. This strengthened the Wari state economically, but also causes the necessity to expand its frontiers. The Wari began their expansion towards the west: first they annexed Huamanga valley by force. Then, they assembled a group of Wari merchants, accompanied by an army, and sent them to the Nazca kingdom. The Wari wanted to impose their products through intimidation but ended up destroying the Nazca capital, annexing the kingdom, and appointing a Nazca noble as governor. The archaeologist Luis G. Lumbreras believes this was Wari’s modus operandi because mummies of merchants surrounded by weapons have been found in mausoleums dedicated to the military class. The Wari culture has traditionally been seen as warlike in nature. The empire then expanded towards the north and conquered the Lima, the Huanca, the Yungas and the Recuay kingdoms. They build several planned and designed urban centers such as Honqo pampa and Willcawain in present-day Callejon de Huaylas, Wiracochapampa and Marcahuamachuco in present-day La Libertad, and Pikillaqta in present-day Cuzco. The Wari also built the temples of Wariwilca, Jincamoco and Waywaka in the Mantaro valley, which was part of the Huanca territory, and connected them with the Wari capital through their road network known as Wari Ñan (the precursor of the Inca road system Qhapaq Ñan). The Wari constructions developed further as the conquered cultures influenced their architectural style. In this phase, their ceramics, bronze and wood crafts also developed advanced styles called «Robles moqo», «Chakipampa B» and «Pacheco». It is suggested that around this time, the Wari empire and the Tiwanaku kingdom established a confederation. Although archaeologists Ruth Shady and Dorothy Menzel call it a pseudo-confederation because there is not enough evidence of a confederation. The archaeologist Joyce Marcus suggests Wari and Tiwanaku were neighboring empires that coexisted without conflicts and cooperated with each other, but their political relationship was described as two empires that didn’t go to war with one another for fear of mutual destruction.

Phase 2A and 2B:
In these phases, The Wari reach their maximum expansion of 700 000 km2 approximately and had a population between 2.9 and 3.1 million. The empire continued to conquer other kingdoms, and built periphereal cities such as Jargampata and Azangaro in San Miguel and Huanta respectively. The Wari centralized the empire and imposed their culture on the region. They remodeled the Huaca Pucllana of the Lima culture and turned it into a necropolis for Wari nobles (The lord of the Unkus, and The Lady of the mask). They also turned Cahuachi of the Nazca culture into a Wari ceremonial site.

During phase 2A, their ceramics and crafts developed the styles called «viñaque», «atarque» and «pachacamac». They built the city of Socos in Chillon valley and the city of Conoche in Topara.

During phase 2B, the Wari expanded and conquered the north of South America. It is important to note that the Wari didn’t incorporate the Moche through conquest, but still managed to turn the Moche kingdom into a tributary state. The archaeologist Federico Kauffmann Doig suggests the Moche were annexed as a result of exhaustion from attrition warfare after many years of war without a clear victor. They joined willingly. His theory is based on the fact that moche ceramics abandoned their bicolor tendencies and adopted polychromatic styles of red-black-white patterns, like the Wari, between the periods corresponding to Wari 1B, 2A and 2B. This means the Wari influenced and were in constant contact with the Moche despite being enemies. Kauffmann Doig also suggests the annexation of the Moche may have been a factor to Wari’s decline since the campaigns were too expensive and required large armies over the centuries. The Wari conquered the Cajamarca III culture and the Lambayeque kingdom around 850 CE, which gave them total control of the north.

Phase 3:
In this phase, the Tiwanaku kingdom disbanded around the 11th century after many decades of decline probably caused by alternating periods of droughts and floods caused by El Niño. Most of them migrated towards the north, but decades later those who remained in the altiplano formed several native polities known as the Aymara kingdoms. Meanwhile, the Wari empire gradually became weaker economically due to the unfavorable climate change. The Wari launched a last military expedition towards the South, which used to be part of the Tiwanaku territory, and made contact with the Chiribaya culture. It is unclear whether the Wari conquered them or if there was only a cultural exchange.

Phase 4:
From 1000 CE, Wari cities started to become depopulated. Former conquered kingdoms such as the Lambayeque, the Huanca, the Chancay, the Yungas, and the remains of the Moche cut ties with the Wari empire and became independent again. The Wari empire was reduced to a regional kingdom once more. Finally around 1100 CE, the Wari state disbanded, and the scarcity of food forced the remaining Wari to migrate towards northern regions like the Mantaro and the Ichma valleys. The Wari in Mantaro valley joined the Huanca people and formed a new Huanca kingdom in Wariwilca. The Wari in Ichma valley joined the Pachacamac oracle, while some wandering groups moved south along the coast and joined the Chincha and other states.

The Chanka period (approx. 1200 CE-1438).

The Chankas appeared in present-day Ayacucho around 1000 CE, and made contact with the declining Wari. The archaeologist María Rostworowski suspects the Chankas were a foreign culture that arrived in Ayacucho from towns next to lake Choclococha and Chucurpu highlands in present-day Huancavelica. According to her theory, the Chanka migrations and invasions caused instability in the weakened Wari state and accelerated its collapse. The Chankas were divided into three groups: the Hanan Chankas, or the Upper Chankas, who inhabited Andahuaylas. The Urin Chankas, or the Lower Chankas, who inhabited Uranmarca. The Villca Chankas, or Rukanas, who inhabited Vilcas Huaman in Ayacucho. Those three valleys used to be Wari centers.
For some archaeologists, the Chanka society is a step backwards from the point of view of urban progression, as compared with the Wari culture. Their settlement pattern was the most widespread of small villages (about 100 houses). Other scholars believe, however, that the Chankas had large populations. There are two types of burials: some in mausoleums, and other simply in the ground. There are also burials in caves or rock shelters.
Additionally, the Chankas share some similarities with the Wari. Both societies worshipped a winged puma deity, built mausoleums, painted their faces during combat, had an expansionist culture, and produced polychromatic high-relief pottery.

Controversy: A recent archaeogenetic research shows the Urin and the Villca Chankas are the closest relatives of the Wari, while the Hanan Chankas weren’t related genetically until about 1300 CE. This contradicts María Rostworowski’s theory. Nonetheless, the archaeologist Jose Ochatoma supports María Rostworowski’s theory and suggests that the Chanka invasion did take place but, decades after the collapse of the Wari empire, some wandering Wari groups from the north might have returned to Ayacucho and joined the Hanan Chankas. These wandering Wari being the ancestors of the Urin and Villca Chankas.

The Tiwanaku-Wari period (approx. 6th century-11th century)

The Tiwanaku-Wari empire was the political union between the Wari empire and the Tiwanaku culture that encompassed more than 1 300 000 km2 and had a population of 5.2 million during the Middle Horizon period. Most archaeologists believe it was an imperialistic confederation controlled by the warmonger Waris because there are no traces of conflict and the Wari road system passes through Tiwanaku territory. On the other hand, there is a group of archaeologists who refute that theory and prefer to call it a pseudo-confederation because there is no clear evidence of a unified government, and they advocate to categorize it as a pacific coexistence between two empires for mutual benefit. The relationship between the two polities is unknown. Definite interaction between the two is proved by their shared iconography in art. The Tiwanaku created a powerful ideology, using previous Andean icons that were widespread throughout their sphere of influence. They used extensive trade routes and shamanistic art. Tiwanaku art consisted of legible, outlined figures depicted in curvilinear style with a naturalistic manner, while Wari art used the same symbols in a more abstract, rectilinear design with a militaristic style.

Economy

The Wari economy was based on agriculture and craftsmanship. They built andenes (terrace farms) to cultivate maize, potatos, oca, mashwa, peanuts, sweet potatos, quinoa, ulluco, etc. They preserved the harvest by exposing the vegetables to very low night temperatures, freezing them, and then leaving them under intense sunlight of the day. The process lasted more than five days, and the result was non-perishable freeze-dried food. The Wari preferred to preserve potatos, and the product was called chuño. The Wari also practiced the chaccu in Pampa Galeras, which consists in shearing vicuñas without harming them.
The Wari craftworkers mainly produced ceramics and wooden artifacts. These prestige and luxury goods were traded for metal ores, cotton, llama and vicuña fiber, feathers, seeds, livestock, etc. They also carved religious wooden tokens for other cultures in exchange for silver and gold, implying an incipient business model.

Warfare

Wari is known as the warmonger state of South America in the Middle Horizon era. Not only they had an expansionist culture, but also their army was organized so that their soldiers could be as efficient as possible. Wari warriors were grouped in quinary or decimal systems, depending on their role in battle, and were commanded by a noble of the same expertise. For example, the infantry was grouped in decimals and led by a veteran noble who wielded spears, maces or axes. While the archers and sligers were grouped in quinaries and led by an archer or slinger veteran noble. The army was divided in castes and ranks based on meritocracy and highly rewarded. Warriors of the Wari caste received luxurious rewards such as gold tokens, land, and colorful feathers which were symbols of status. As opposed to warriors conscripted from conquered kingdoms who only received plots of land and livestock. The Wari army also used war paint to rally themselves for battle and played pututu trumpets to cause fear and confusion among the enemy.



Metallurgy and blacksmithing

There are vestiges of Wari metallurgy in gold, copper and bronze religious figures made via a combination of bossing, plating, lost-wax, hitting and shaping methods. Some authors affirm that Wari metalworking progressed thanks to the Tiwanaku influence; however, Krzysztof Makowski proposes it actually developed in Waywaka, an archaeological site studied by Joel W. Grossman in the Andahuaylas region, where bronze pieces were found. Ismael Perez Calderon suggests the Wari developed further their blacksmithing after annexing the Moche kingdom, and they built blacksmith centers dedicated solely to produce metal equipment and weapons; more specifically in fortified places such as Conchopata and Huarmey Castle.

Conchopata
Some of the most complex Wari metallurgical works were found in Conchopata by the archaeologist Denise Pozzi-Escot. The site was a blacksmith workshop mainly dedicated to the working of copper and gold; and its predominant products were «tupus» or «topos». The tupu was a thick metal safety pin used as rivets to strengthen shields and doors, and to keep clothes from falling and getting loose. Tupus were abundant in Conchopata but they were also found in large quantities in Huamachuco, Jargampata and Azangaro, so it’s almost certain they were mass produced. Bronze and silver tupus were also found in Wari city, which indicates that certain materials might have been restricted based on social class.

Huarmey Castle
The fortress, also known as The Castle on the River Huarmey, is a pyramid-like structure on the coast of Peru, in the Ancash Region north of Lima, the most studied section of the archeological complex is the Wari mausoleum which was discovered in an undisturbed condition. The burial chamber of the royal tomb was discovered in early 2013 by a Peruvian-Polish research team, which was led by Milosz Giersz of Poland’s University of Warsaw and co-director Roberto Pimentel Nita. The tomb contained 1,200 artifacts, including gold earrings, bronze axes, jewelry made of copper and silver, and silver bowls. Jose Ochatoma thinks the Castle was heavily protected because it was a Wari necropolis that was surrounded by blacksmith workshops.


Pikillaqta

Pikillaqta was a large urban center of the Wari people. At around A.D. 650, the Wari erected Pikillaqta, a huge fortified complex covering 25 hectares south of the Cuzco valley. Pikillaqta was garrisoned and all five entrances to the valley accessible from the altiplano were heavily fortified. Pikillaqta may have been large feasting site. There was a large patio or plaza in the middle of the complex that probably was the center of the administrative rituals and religious practices. Rulers and their kin would come together and feast and drink, and with the capacity of the patio, Pikillaqta could hold a ceremony for people from other Wari settlements. Items like turquoise bluish-green stone were traded into the area. They were used for figurines and bluish-green stone was not found in the area. Other stones, gemstones, and minerals were exchanged around the area. Anita Cook suggests Pikillaqta may have been the center of the big trade network. The pottery in Pikillaqta was also traded in, Okros and Huamanga style pottery were two of the main styles and they were made around the area. Pikillaqta was one of the biggest Wari sites so other goods were probably traded in and out of the area and housed in the many buildings at Pikillaqta. Many people came around for the ceremonies so a lot of items were probably traded or brought in with them.

Religion

The Wari religion evolved through their different periods and phases. The first tutelary god of the Waris was Kon, a winged puma god that rejoiced when people waged war. However, influenced by the Tiwanaku, they also worshipped Wiracocha the staff god. During the imperial period, Wiracocha became the most importat god, and the Waris often portrayed him in apotheosis, with hands holding instruments of power, in their ceramics and textiles. A form of the staff god, for example, takes a central role in the Sun Gate of the Tiwanaku culture, a single-stone monolith. Tunics and ceramics from both the Tiwanaku and Wari cultures of the Middle Horizon period showcase a similar god. Another example is the giant offering jars found at Conchopata: They were painted with the Staff-God’s image, one that bears resemblance to the god’s depiction at the back of the Tiwanaku’s Ponce Monolith. The archaeologist Luis G. Lumbreras believes there must have been syncretism between both cults that transformed Wari into a theocratic-militaristic society of zealots during the imperial period. A theory that’s supported by numerous evidence of funerary masks and complex burial chambers, the emergence of necropolis in Huaca Pucllana and Huarmey Castle, and the ceremonial reform in Cahuachi.


Important figures

-The Lord of Vilcabamba: He was a wari warrior-governor who reigned in Vilcabamba valley, Cuzco.
-The Lord of the Unkus: He was a rich wari ruler of the Lima culture. His mummy was found in Huaca Pucllana.
-The Lady of the mask: She was a wari queen of the Lima culture. she was buried in Huaca Pucllana, surrounded by servants and luxurious textiles.
-The Queen of Huarmey: She was a wari warrior-queen who reigned over Ancash. She was buried along bronze axes in Huarmey Castle.
-Uscovilca: He was the founder of the Hanan Chankas.
-Ancovilca: Wari leader who returned to Ayacucho. He was the founder of the Urin Chankas.
-Anccu Hualloc: He was a Chanka leader who launched the conquest of Cusco with 40,000 warriors.

Languages:

Ayacucho quechua (Chanka) and Aymara.

Possible campaigns:

-The Wari and the conquest of South America.
-Update to the Inca campaign: Incas vs Chankas (Wari) and Chimu (Chimu).

Source
Thanks to google translate

-Allison, Malcolm (2011). “El Señor Wari de las selvas de Vilcabamba”. La Mula online.
-Encyclopædia Britannica (2021). “Huari: Archaeological site and Andean civilization”. Encyclopædia Britannica online.
-González Carré, Enrique (2004). “Los Señoríos Chancas: historia, mitos y leyendas”. Boletín del Instituto Riva-Agüero No. 31. PUCP.
-Grossman, Joel W.; Kenna, Timothy C. (2017). “Early Metallurgy from Waywaka in the South-Central Highlands of Andahuaylas, Apurimac, Peru: New AMS Dates and XRF Analysis”. The 81st Annual Meeting of the Society for American Archaeology, Vancouver, British Columbia.
-Isbell, William H. (1984). “Huari urban prehistory”. En A. Kendall (Ed.), Current Archaeological Projects in the Central Andes. British Archaeological Reports
International Series 210. Oxford.
-Jennings, Justin; Mora, Franco; Velarde, María Inés; Yépez Álvarez, Willy (2015). “Wari imperialism, bronze production, and the formation of the Middle Horizon: Complicating the picture”. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology.
-Lumbreras, Luis G. (1980). “El Imperio Wari”. En Historia del Perú, vol. 2, pp. 9–91. Editorial J. Mejia Baca, Lima.
-Makowski, Krzysztof; Giersz, Milosz (2014). “Castillo de Huarmey. The Wari Imperial Mausoleum”. Asociación Museo de Arte de Lima (MALI).
-Rowe, John H.; Collier, Donald (1950).“Reconnaissance notes on the site of Huari, near Ayacucho, Peru”. American Antiquity, Salt Lake City.
-Pérez Calderón, I. (2019). “El estado regional Huarpa y los orígenes del Imperio Wari”. Alteritas, (9), 181 - 221.
-Santa Cruz, Javier Fonseca; Bauer, Brian S. (2020). “The Wari Enclave of Espiritu Pampa”. Cotsen Institute of Archaeology Press at UCLA.
-Valdez, Lidio M.; Valdez, J. Ernesto (2021). “Archaeological research in a rural settlement in the Ayacucho Valley, Peru”. ARQUEOLOGÍA Y SOCIEDAD Nº 33, 2021: 75-106. UNMSM.
-Vergano, Dan (2013). “‘Temple of the dead’ discovered in Peru”. USA TODAY online.
-Wikipedia (2021). “Cultura wari”. Wikipedia online. Spanish.
-Wikipedia (2021). “Huari”. Wikipedia online. Italian.
-Wikipedia (2021). “Wari Empire”. Wikipedia online. English.

17 Likes

High quality proposal and I particularly like the empire maximum population table for 900-1500CE

4 Likes

Would recomend just calling them Andean Axeman or Chucuna (an andean weapon). Seems like a fine civ to me.

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Images






Why I can’t edit old posts??

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I am really impressed by this research, I congratulate the author for the time invested and the skill in synthesizing the important elements of this Civilization.

Some time ago I also made a concept of Wari civilization with connection to the Chankas (I never published it), one of the books that I took as a reference was “The Chanca Kingdom” by Waldemar Espinoza Soriano, some important points that I considered are:

  1. In Felipe Guaman Poma’s book, he mentions the history of the young Chanka kingdom with the young kingdom of Cusco: “His apocuraca was already Anca Uallo who had the purpose of being Inca, whose life chronologically coincided with that of Manco Capac, the first great Lord of Cusco, who introduced him to and donated his sister Topa Uaco to seal an alliance exchanging wives; but this warrior woman, without hiding her condition as Uarmi-Auca (warrior woman), deceived and murdered the leader and captain Anca Uallo ”. How to decipher this report? 1 ° That the Chanca population was numerous; 2 that it constituted an ethnic group with imperial pretensions because it was considered linked to the previous Huari State; 3 ° that chronologically it would coincide with the displacement of the first Incas to Cusco; 4 ° that Chancas and Incas were strong nations, who came to exchange wives to settle confrontations, although this plan failed because the woman from Cusco was an instrument to disappear the Chanca chief.
  2. That, given ancient and recent research, it is most likely that the Chankas descended from the Wari in the same way that the Incas descended from the Tiwanaku.
  3. The Chankas had a strong sense of duality (common in the Andean kingdoms, even the Incas had dual division).
  4. The writings of Fernando de Montesinos are taken as a reference, who mentions in more detail the Inca-Chanca war with interesting data such as: 1) The Chankas already had their own identity before contacting the Incas and appeared after the fall of the Empire Wari. 2) the Chanka army divided into 3 divisions (only one Chanka division was the one that tried to assault Cuzco in the Battle of Yahuarpampa), 3) at its maximum expression, the kingdom of Parkos (Chanka) managed to expand to the border of the current countries of Bolivia and Paraguay.

My concept of Chanca-Inca Civilization was going to focus on meeting 2 needs (in my opinion) present in AoE 2: 1) A new innovative mechanics. 2) To publicize the concept of miscegenation that occurred in America.

  1. New innovative mechanics: It is known that the Wari were the first empire of America, they developed the Crops in Andenes and a road network that many attribute exclusively to the Incas (when they really only inherited it), however the Wari Empire collapsed and the Survivors suffered from a technological and cultural setback (this was most likely due to natural disasters), so my concept was to create a civilization that when it reaches “Castle Age” has two options: a) bet everything on the age of the castles, b) Advance to the imperial age with penalties.
  • a) Betting everything on the age of the Castles: Until this age the civilization would remain as “Wari” with a single unit called “Wari Axeman” and a civilization focused on the economy and military. Their unique technology (castles) would be “Wari-Tiwanaku Confederation” which would be extremely expensive and developing it would disable the option of advancing to the imperial age. By developing this technology all the blacksmith, urban center and university improvements are developed and also its UU (Wari Axeman) is updated at the elite level. What the player would only have the option of winning the game in the age of the Castles, or losing due to the technological difference when his opponent manages to reach the imperial age.
  • b) Advance to the imperial age with penalties: In this age the civilization would have the “Chanka” identity, so the technological decline is evident (they lack important technologies in blacksmithing, monastery, Urban Center in addition to important updates as Champion and Elite Eagle Warrior), his UU would become a completely different unit from “Wari Axeman”, now being called “Cougar Warrior” or “Uscovilca Warrior”. Also now it would have 2 completely different unique technologies: 1) Vampires of the Andes: the military units are created faster. 2) Mummies Oracles (The Chankas had a great devotion to their founding leaders who were mummified and taken to battle, literally the warriors abandoned everything to follow their leaders to war): Eagle warriors stop costing gold, but now they cost a lot more food. Additionally, all or half of the villagers could be transformed into military units (militia line), there would be more military units but the economic penalty would be more painful.
  1. To publicize the concept of miscegenation that occurred in America: This would take place through a campaign, which includes the origin of the Morochucos, the narration of the story would be very similar to Saladino’s campaign (which for me has one of the best narratives), the story would be narrated by a surviving Spanish soldier Battle of Chupas who with the rest of his companions went into Ayacucho, in a Chanca town (which at that time were independent due to their support for Spain) in where he meets a woman who allows them to stay, over the years this woman tells him the story of the fall of the Wari, the origin of the Chancas, the Chanca expansion, the War against the Incas, the Chanca military division that He participated in the expansion of the Tawantisuyo (the climax being the taking of the Orcucollac fortress) and as the last scenario the “escape” that consisted in the escape of the Chanca military division (with their families included) commanded by Anco Huallo upon discovering (through his sister) that Inca nobles planned to betray and assassinate them, this escape was considered a myth for centuries because it is a walking tour of more than 1000 km through the entire Andes mountain range, however, The presence of Chanka descendants was discovered a few years ago in the San Martín Region (where the legend says that the Chankas settled), demonstrating that the myth was real.
  • There are several names of Chanka leaders, all their kings adopted the name Uscovilca or Ancovilca (in honor of their founders), the name of their important leaders: Mallma and Rapa, who entered the west of Condesuyo; Yanavilca and Teclovilca, who invaded Antisuyo; Tomay Huaraca and Astohuaraca, who attacked Cusco; and Huamán Huaraca negotiated the surrender of the Inca Huiracocha and his son Urcon.

Image gallery

Wari armor
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Wari Soldier
Vasija Wari - copia
Guerrero Wari Ceramica

Wari deity

Chanka soldiers in drawings of Inca descendants during colonial times


Quero VA 368 (Museum für Volkerkunde, Berlin
kero con posible escenificación de la guerra contra los chankas, en Ramos Gómez 2002 884

Drawings of American allied soldiers during the conquest (note that the Chancas use Tuccinas or “Andean swords”)

Common representation of a Chanka warrior (with Cougar skin)
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Personally I like the concept of the Tuccina (Andean sword) more.

sinchi-roca

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Love the concept! :slight_smile:

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Very good ideas. Would be a good opportunity to give them and the Incas a separate Andean architecture set as well. Seeing them with the mesoamerican set is kind of jarring.

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Like an AoE3 revolution? Not sure if it would work in AoE2, the economy pace is different. Maybe something similar to the Flemish Revolution or the Tupac Rebellion but with permanent upgrades would be a better approach.

This sounds interesting.

From what i know the Tuccina was more like a dagger than a sword [In Spanish]

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Looks fine.

It makes a lot of sense since it was an empire in the bronze age.
This civ will improve the inca campaign too. So it’s not incas against incas all the time.

I agree. Axeman sounds too simple. Even axe warrior sounds longer and better lol.

I googled it. And google says the name is cunca/cuncha chucuna = neck breaker. I like the name. If only a good samaritan could tell us what’s the correct spelling or pronunciation.
Naming them “Neck breakers” in English sounds cool too.

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There’s not a single way to write runasimi (The Quechua language). Still, shouldn’t be “Chucuna” but “Cuchuna” (because comes from “Cuchuy”/“Kuchuy” that means to cut), and in the Chanka Runasimi would be spelled as “Kunka Kuchuna”. According to some chronicles this was a long axe that during the Tawantinsuyu (Inca empire) was used by the Inka Orejones (also called “Pacoyoc”/“Pakuyuq”).

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Something similar, he had had that idea even before the Lords of the West DLC, the objective of that mechanic was to have “Two civilizations in one”, the first (Wari) was going to manifest itself until the age of the Castles that required an economic strategy and heavy military, while the second (Chanka) would focus militarily on low-cost army waves. Among some of the ideas I had for the unique technology (Castillo) I came up with:

  1. By developing this technology, it would give access to all the improvements of the blacksmithing present in the Imperial age, update of the Eagle Warrior and the UU at the elite level as well as the possibility of development of the Imperial Age level of some military units.
  2. Free update of your UU, Eagle Warrior, Ram and some naval units. It could also include a free upgrade of blacksmith upgrades (which could also include upgrades pertaining to the Imperial age).
  3. Access to improvements of the university, monastery and economic buildings present in the Imperial Age

By developing this unique technology from the Castle age, it would render it impossible to advance to the Imperial age.
However, if the Imperial Age develops, this civilization would already have the Chanka aspect and the cultural and technological regression would manifest itself by not being able to develop some economic and military improvements of the Imperial Age

This makes a more significant sense than could only be done in an American civilization: swapping the heavy and expensive UU (Wari) for a lighter and more versatile one (Chanka). In addition, the Eagle Warrior would not be upgraded to the elite level and due to its new unique technology (Castillo) it would be a trash unit. Doing this would change the army configuration and therefore the game strategy.

The famous “Wino vs Tuqsina” controversy, thank you for mentioning it. The Tuqsina was an entirely metal weapon that was wielded with a single hand of 2 to 3 spans (0.46 to 0.69 meters / 18 - 27 inches) being almost the same size as a Roman Gladius.

The Wino was a palm sword (fire-hardened Amazon rainforest tree) similar in appearance to a 1.67-meter-long (66-inch) greatsword that is even used by some native peoples of the Amazon rainforest, once I had the pleasure of seeing a medium-sized one. (I wish the Jungle Bowman had this weapon for melee attack), the soldiers who wielded these wooden greatswords had the name “Wino-Kamayuk”. From the texts it follows that the Tuqsina was a stabbing weapon while the Wino was a cutting weapon. However, both could be considered swords.

Wino:


Tuqsina


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I found this
Peruvian Andean Mountain Native Weapon - Hacha " Cunca Cuchuna | #496332265 (worthpoint.com)

I’m not sure what difference the /k/ makes but I guess the pronunciation is different between inca quechua and the chanka dialect. Like british and american english.
Calling them Kunka Kuchuna with Ks is a nice touch of accuracy imo.

Any idea about how javelineers are called in chanka quechua? Not that it’s necessary… most UUs have their names localized to english anyway.

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The thing is that Velasco (who didn’t live during the “conquest”) is the first one that refers to the Tuqsina as a sword, but authors that precede him called it a dagger. So I’m not sure if we should consider it a sword, also probably it was used as an ancillary weapon the same way combat knives are used nowadays or in a ritualistic manner as a status symbol.

There’s not a difference in the pronunciation. The use of the letter “C” in some writings is a remnant of the way the Spaniards wrote down runasimi words (and present in Spanish chronicles and in non-runasimi speakers writings). Nowadays, part of the Quechua people, people learning the language and the State of Peru (and other central-andes countries) don’t use the “C” for the /k/ phoneme. They only use it to represent the /tʃ/ phoneme as “CH”. Also, the major difference between the Cusco spelling and the Chanka one is the use of vowels (Cusco people use the five vowels and Chanka people only use the “a”, the “i” and the “u”).

Looks like a mace-axe that it would be referred as Chiqtana (a name for common axes) or as Maqana (a name for maces). One problem with the names of Andean weapons it’s that many of them are regional (only some people use that term), descriptive (“Kuchuna” literally means “something to cut with”) or were substituted with Spanish words (some people use “Jacha” when they’re talking about an axe), so they can be somewhat vague. Still, some authors like Holguin described the Kunka Kuchuna as a “battle-axe” and as a “halberd”. And probably they were talking about this one [the axe at the bottom] that appears in some Huaman Poma’s drawings.

I don’t know. Chuki is the Quechua word for “spear”, so maybe “Chukiq Awqaruna” (Warrior of the spear) or “Chuki Kamayuq” (Professional spearman or Expert in the spear) could work? It sounds forced and too long for a non-english word, something like “Andean Besieger” would be better.

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Well, it is obvious that elements of gold or silver served for ceremonial purposes (as is the case with the Tumis), However, the use of Bronze may have been more widespread for the professional army. Using a Tuqsina as an auxiliary weapon makes sense and would have the same reason why a Hoplite was also armed with a Xiphos for close combat. As I understand it, the Inca elite forces were armed with halberds or long spears so these troops could also carry a Tuqsina for close combat. That would also explain the image of why a Chanka soldier is armed with a spear and a tuqsina.

Another detail is that there are several drawings of Inca weapons in which they include swords.
ESPADAS INCAS

There are also the famous elongated Tumis that some also consider swords, although they were probably intended for elite troops and / or ceremonial purposes.



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Although the truth is that the Incas preferred as weapons the Halberds, Spears, Maces, Axes and maces (Macanas included), even mixed weapons such as the Macana-Ax. So it would make sense for the Tuqsina to be the auxiliary weapon for soldiers who carried polearms.
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But Returning to the Theme, as seen in Wari studies, the preferred weapon of their army was the Ax. And the name “neckbreaker” is also very interesting to me.

In chanka quechua:

Kunka Kuchuna
Chukiq Awqaruna

Localized to English:

Neck Breaker
Andean javelineer

Both options sound cool imo. I think these wari unique units are pretty solid so far.
They are historically accurate, based on that wari jar and those wari broze figures.

In terms of gameplay, it’d be awesome if andean javelineers have different stats so they don’t overlap with the regular skirmishers.
Like +10 against unique units, +4 against archers, +3 against cavalry, +2 against eagles. And 1/3 armor. Andean javelineers’ll have different roles and other skirmishers will take them down easier plus all cavalry would still rekt them. The elite version could have +1 attack and a little bit more hp.
That way the player will have to choose between training regular skirmishers or andean javelineers depending on his strategy or the situation.

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A detail: in the bronze figurines there are 2 types of units: a javelineer (blue) and a spearman (red).

The javelineer is using an “Estólica” (called “átlatl” by the Aztecs), it is a Spear-thrower that were made of wood or, as in the case of the Mochica / Chimú, made of metal (it was a sign of rank and prestige).

The spearman appears to have more armor and a shield with a metal center, he is holding his weapons in much the same way as the Hoplite formation. I remember reading some chronicles that mentioned that the Incas also used spear formation similar to Macedonian phalanx (some even speculate that the famous Spanish Tercios formation was inspired by these Inca formations, and although the idea seems strange, the dates are consistent).

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This is quite peculiar, since both javelineer and spearman are trash units in AoE 2.

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The sole issue I see with the Huari/Wari is that they’d probably speak Quechua which is already used by Incas.

They could speak Aymara as a viable alternative.

Just saying that I find it quite weird that the American civs have always to fight against the Spanish. A “regional” campaign would work just fine. Personally, in South America, I’d like to see the Chimu, Muisca and/or Mapuche. The Portuguese Civ mod made Tupi also a playable civ.

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That is correct historically, the Wari and Chankas originally spoke Aymara, and it is one of the reasons why the Quechua Chanka is different from the Quechua of Cuzco, during the Inca empire all the states belonging to the Empire were inculcated to speak Quechua and that is That is why there is currently a great variety of the Quechua language, for example, I know something about the Quechua of Caxamarca that is different from the Quechua of Cuzco and the Quechua Chanka (if someone spoke to me in any of those Quechuas, surely I would not understand them , not at least completely.)

It is an excellent idea, this will help to show how pre-Columbian civilizations were.

In my personal opinion, the 3 great South American powers could serve:
Chimú: Descendants of the Moche
Incas: Descendants of the Tiwanaku
Chanka: Descendants of the Wari.

As an advanced Amazonian civilization, the Chachapoyas (also called “Chachas”) could serve.

Although this is historically correct, it would have functional mechanics and it would be coherent, I am aware that they probably distribute civilizations according to geography, so they probably use civilizations like the Muisca or the Tarascos.

Civilizations that had no government organization, no masonry, and no metallurgy do not fit AoE 2, and in my perception would only reinforce the stereotype that pre-Columbian civilizations were “stone age tribal organizations.”

Speaking the same language is not a big deal we already have goths and teutons mongol and huns tatar and cuman italian and byzantines speaking the same language.

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That each of those civilizations have their own language is also on my wish list :smiley:

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