Civilization concept: The Kingdom of Hungary

Hi everyone, I present to you (and maybe to any lurking devs for inspiration!) my civ concept for the Kingdom of Hungary. It doesn’t seem to be one of the more popular civs to be added (which is another reason why I chose to design it) but IMO is right up there with HRE and French as influential medieval European nations and has great synergy with conflicts against HRE, Mongols, French to a lesser extent, and potential future Byzantine, Turkish, and Polish civs. Full disclosure: I am not Hungarian, but I tried to design everything about this civ with historical inspiration and I spent way too much time researching it, so feel free to ask about any of the features and why I chose them. Almost no actual numbers are included - just concepts - because it’s impossible to know what would be balanced without playtesting. The design goal was a flexible civ that isn’t necessarily the best at any one thing but can develop in a number of different directions. Enjoy!

The Kingdom of Hungary
Immigration, Gold Mining, Mercenaries
896 - 1526
Difficulty: 2/3

Background and Inspiration:

Raiders from the East : The Principality of Hungary was established after the Magyars migrated from the East and conquered the area of present-day Hungary in 896. From here they raided western Europe for more than 90 years before a resounding defeat convinced them to settle down. In 1000 the Christian Kingdom of Hungary was formed and grew to become one of the pre-eminent medieval powers in Europe. The civ design reflects the growth of the Kingdom from pagan raiders to a strong medieval Christian European superpower with castles and Knights. The timeframe ends at their crushing defeat to the Ottoman Empire at the Battle of Mohacs in 1526, which resulted in the collapse and partition of Medieval Hungary.

A Multi-ethnic Nation : From its inception, Hungary attracted many immigrants and colonists drawn to its untapped land and resources, especially gold and silver, of which it provided most of Europe’s and about 1/3 of the world’s total production up until the 1490s. After the Mongols devastated Hungary, immigrants drove the population boom. Each immigrant group shaped Hungarian life in different ways depending on their skills. The Immigration mechanic and bonuses reflect this.

Europe’s Strongest Army : In the 15th century, the Black Army of Hungary was a professional standing army larger even than that of France, the only other one at the time in Europe. These professional full-time mercenaries were highly skilled, but also highly paid, requiring massive (unpopular) taxation to retain. This army also contained a much higher percentage of firearms users than other European armies at the time, at 1 in 4. These fought in a uniquely Hungarian way by using a pavise instead of a fork to stabilize their gun, and sometimes borrowed the tactics of the Hussites by fighting from wagons. There is some debate as to whether or not they actually wore black armor, but they are depicted that way in artwork. Because the possibility exists, it would be unique and interesting if they were depicted this way in game. The Hungarians are also well known for their Huszars, light cavalry which was used to harass, scout, and disrupt and was derided by the ‘honorable’ Knight class.


Landmarks slowly (for balance) train immigrants (units). Each landmark can choose to attract different immigrant ethnicities which give different bonuses depending on how many of that type have been created. The same immigrants can be trained simultaneously from different landmarks to speed up that bonus. The goal is to not be able to get all the bonuses in one game but to have the flexibility to choose which ones you want depending on matchups/maps. Initially I had three tiers of bonuses with different bonuses for each but got some feedback that it was too confusing and hard to balance, so now I’ve just included the immigrants’ specialties rather than being specific.

Immigrants Age Unlocked Unit Spawned Bonus Specialty
Saxons Feudal Villager Improved Mining and Churches
Vlachs Feudal Villager + Sheep Improved shepards and Impalers spears
Cumans Castle Horse Archer Improved Horsemen and Horse Archers
Walloons Castle Man at Arms Improved MAA and Knights
Slavs Imperial Arquebusier Improved farming, ships, and gunpowder
Italians Imperial Trader Improved trade and research bonuses

Influence: Buildings within the influence of Mine Shafts increase the immigrant spawn rate. Increases in tiers similar to the Abbasid Golden Age. Only active mine shafts count, to encourage map control and development of ‘mining towns’ around gold mines. Various ways exist to extend influence beyond mine shafts so this remains relevant in late game.

Unique Features


  • Mine Shaft (I, 100W): Must be built on top of a gold mine. Increases current mine yield by a significant percentage. Automatically mines gold at some rate (similar to Oovoo) but also allows villagers to still mine from it. If the building is destroyed, the amount of gold in the mine returns to what its value would have been without the shaft.

  • Fortified Church(III, 300 S): Built from a regular church by fortifying it like an outpost. Acts as a weaker keep with full monastery functionality (based on the UNESCO Heritage Transylvanian Fortified churches)

  • Mercenary Camp (IV, 150W, 150G): Trains Black Army mercenary units. (Ideally I think this should be available to other civs as well and train different units depending on the civ)

    • Black Army Armored Company (2:1 ratio of Knights to MAA)
    • Black Army Infantry Company (2:1 ratio of Pikemen to Arquebusiers)
    • Black Army Raiding Company (1:1 ratio of Huszars and Xbows)
    • Black Army Ranged Company (2:1 ratio of Xbows and Arquebusiers with 1 Hussite Wagon)


  • Horse Archer (II, Archery Range) : Could be either same as Rus HA or different.
  • Huszar (IV, Stable): Horseman with increased LOS and damage vs Villagers
  • Arquebusier (IV, Archery Range): Low HP gunpowder Infantry unit with special pavise ability. Pavise has deploy and pack up time. When pavise is deployed, Arquebusiers gain increased range and significantly increased ranged armor but cannot move.
  • Black Army Mercenaries (IV, Mercenary Camp): Function as improved versions of Elite units (that do not need upgrades). Cost a large amount of gold and train quickly (to represent a professional standing army)
  • Hussite Wagon (IV, Mercenary Camp). Siege weapon-like stats (high ranged armor with low-ish health) Ranged infantry can garrison and fire from the wagon. Would potentially be available to other civs as well.


  • Treadmill Crane (II, Mine Shaft): Increase trickle rate of Mine Shafts
  • Draining Engines (III, Mine Shaft): Increases extra gold yield of Mine Shafts
  • Oppressive Taxation (IV, Raven’s Keep Landmark, Toggleable): All non-gold resources return only 50% of resources dropped off, but now also return 50% of that amount in gold. Stops all immigration while active.
  • Hospes Privileges: (II, Town Center and Landmarks): Immigration Speed increased.
  • Salt Cutters (III, Mine Shaft): Mine Shafts generate a small trickle of food
  • Golden Bull (III, Keep): Churches extend Immigration Influence bonus
  • Metallurgical Guilds (II, Market): Buildings built within the influence of a mine shaft are cheaper
  • Order of the Dragon (III, Church): All units fighting near a Church gain increased damage and/or armor.
  • Pavisiers (IV, Archery Range): Arquebusier pavise deploy time reduced
  • Diet of Temesvar (IV, Stable): Horsemen renamed to Huszar and gain increased LOS and bonus damage vs Villagers
  • Reflex Bows (II): Increased horse archer range and damage
  • Stirrups (II): Increased horse archer speed
  • River Boats (III): Really not sure what type of naval bonus to give the Hungarians but every civ has a unique dock upgrade. The Hungarian navy was mostly river based, so maybe increased speed to small boats?


Feudal – Raiding/Early Aggression VS Booming

  • Chieftain’s Hill fort: Acts as an outpost that can create cavalry archers and horsemen.
    • Inspired by the many wood+earthen hill forts such Szabolcs Hill Fort that were built by the Magyars in the early days of the Principality of Hungary.
  • Basilica of the Assumption: Nearby buildings contribute to Immigration tier regardless of the presence of Mine Shafts.
    • Represents the now destroyed Basilica of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary which was the site of the coronation of the Hungarian monarch for 500+ years)

Castle: Defense + Passive bonus VS Flexibility at a cost

  • Diosgyor Castle: Keep that builds extremely quickly when in Influence zone and allows for quick defense when under pressure. Keeps now either increase immigration rate or train immigrants (can’t decide which is more balanced).
    • Its namesake was one of the castles built in Hungary extremely quickly after the Mongol invasions to deter future attacks.
  • Royal Mint: Can spend gold to purchase immigration related bonuses and bypass the required number of immigrants (can be balanced with cost + research time).
    • Does not represent any specific historic building, but represents the fact that due to its large production of gold, Hungary also minted many coins in the middle ages. Is also a unique type of building that we haven’t seen before (i.e. not just another church or castle).

Imperial: Immediate mercenary power spike VS eco bonuses for longer game

  • Raven’s Keep : Allows hiring of individual Black army mercenaries from Keeps. Acts as a Keep. Enables Oppressive Taxation.
    • Represents Hunyadi Castle in Transylvania - one of the largest castles in Europe.
  • Grand Library : Acts as a university with decreased research cost and increases immigration speed for every technology researched. Buildings within influence have decreased research cost.
    • Represents the Biblioteca Corviniana, one of the most renowned libraries of the Renaissance world, second in size only to the Vatican library in all of Europe.


  • Buda Palace

Very well thought out! And I really like the game mechanic ideas as well! The immigrant system and mine shafts is very interesting unique quirk.

I’d also like to add that for AoE4, you need to avoid copying other civ’s unique units. Unique units seems very core into Civ identity.
While I agree the Magyar heritage is literally horse archer heritage, and they shud have some form of horse archer. All you need to do tbh is to find an alternate name + give them a quirk that differates them from regular horse archers.

Good example is Rus Horse Archers contra Mangudai as well as Camel Archers (they are technically horse archers lol)

I always thought the Magyar>Hungary transition would be fun to explore in AOE4. They fit the time period well that AOE4 is based in perfectly too.

Thank you! I was inspired by all the concepts you’ve been making. If you could put the effort to do so many, I could find it in me to do at least the one civ I’ve wanted to do for a long time which nobody had looked at yet.

To be honest I really struggled with differentiating the Magyar horse archer. Should it fire while moving? Then it’s a Mangudai. Should it be able to attack both ranged and melee? Maybe OP and more fitting for another civ’s theme. Healing while retreating? We all know what people think of French Knights. Would be interested in hearing other people’s ideas.

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Thanks! Thats great to hear! I love seeing more people going into civ designs!
It does help with future ideas and people being able to share Civ designs amongst each other can result into something quite interesting.

and just because I’m an History Nerd and wanting to pay homage to AoE2 whenever I can.

I would have given the Magyar Horsemen acting like horse archer, but added ability to use torch attack against buildings, and maybe even a extra bonus torch damage similar to mongols imp torch upgrade against buildings.
Consider Magyars dervies from the Huns, and the Hun unique Tarkan unit is a type of Siege-cavalry So it’ll be a interesting ranged unit that is able to deal with buildings and towers.

Naval specialty could be “sajka”. When Hungarians fought with the ottoman empire they used these boats at lake Balaton. They were produced by Italians and Germans around Vienna. They were built with quite low-quality wood, so they were weak, and should be a kind of light boat.

This is how the looked like.

About Horse archers: Horse archers should shoot while moving, and I think they should receive +1 ranged dmg while shooting backward (just for an interesting microelement). That’s nothing special of course, but in Hungarian history, the horse archer based military strategies are famous (it’s called parthian shot, actually most of the nomad tribes used it).

yeah I agree on the part with horse archers.

I am endlessly frustrated how Mangudais are portrayed in AoE.
Having literally 1 tile longer range than a Abbasid Spearman is kinda a joke.
Their fire on the move is extremely useful, and I think its the reason the Devs are so afraid of increasing their range.
I’m kinda saddened that Archers do a better job than mangudais in skirmishing.
In contrast to IRL Mongol, or for that matter, most nomadic tribe Horse Archers were exceptionally good and was able to fire almost as far if not at some cases as far a as a longbow with their composite bows but with extreme accuracy to boot.

I pay my respects to your fine research and concept work, Kingdom of Hungary is a legit and worthy civ despite half of launch civs being from Europe. Nice job there with the immigration mechanic.

After an investigation into the subject, it was determined that Hungary was indeed of the strongest and most influential medieval Euro nations. Therefore it was then included in the ‘Fortress of Europe’ DLC (name in its honor) as a candidate DLC in the first realistic, context-based AoE4 DLC poll, welcome to read and vote:

In fact, after the ‘Rise and Fall’ civ analysis, I would personally have included Hungary or Bulgaria as launch civs instead of English, if I really wanted 4 European civs.

The reasons are straightforward, the famous Black Army was more unique and much stronger, more well-trained and professional than the English during 80-90% of the AoE4 timespan, and Hungary was indeed the true Fortress of Europe, as well as having many more interactions with world civs than English. Hungary - all alone - defeated the Mongols in 1285, in fact it utterly destroyed the invading Mongol army, saving Europe big time (but a century later, at the great Battle of Nicopolis 1396 ‘The Last Crusade’, an all-European army of 20 nations including Hungary would be annihilated by the Ottoman Empire).

Take a look at the ‘Rise and Fall’ civ analysis:

Decided to update with some pictures

Potential Flag (note that this flag is already in the game files, it is used in the Mongol Campaign)

Diosgyor Castle Before and After

By Varak - I created this work entirely by myself., CC BY-SA 3.0, File:Diosgyor.jpg - Wikipedia

Fortified Church Example

Hunyadi Castle

Black Army Knight


Hussite Wagon


I love this!! As the dev of Eastern Europe Expansion(Mods Single - Age of Empires) for AoE3:DE, (and a Hungarian myself) this will definitely be something I’ll be looking at (longingly) until I finish off the AoE3 mod and perhaps move on to make an Age IV mod :smiley: (if the devs don’t do it themselves first)


Really glad you like it! Of course now that the Malians get the ‘gold mine’ building that I came up with for Hungary (honestly I was thinking something like that could also be applicable to them so I’m not too disappointed), I may have to come up with something else. I hope you can do such a mod for AOE4 because I know devs have said they will allow new unit skin/civilization mods soon and I doubt Hungary is very high on their priority list! I would really love to see Black army and Transylvanian architecture, and something like the Fortified Church would be quite unique.


**Hussite Wagon ** should be czech (bohemian) unit, not hungarian (magyar)

Anyway I like these ideas

And bohemia was Part of the HRE

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Yes, but the czech hussites themself fought against catholic HRE not for HRE

Feature History - Hussite Wars - YouTube

…and Bohemia was important medieval kingdom - a separate historical entity

Hussites would be best as bohemian exlusive units, like landsknechts are exclusive HRE

And back to the Hungarians / Magyars

I would like to see Matthias Corvinus’s Black Army represented and Magyars should have horse archers
Black Army of Hungary | Most Sought-After Mercenaries in Europe - YouTube

There is potential for single player missions with theme of Mongol invasions of Hungary (from Hungarian perspective) ,

Ottoman–Hungarian wars,
Kingdom of Hungary (1301–1526) - Wikipedia

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Bohemia was an importent Part in medievel History but Not really a seperate entity.
Neither was Germany, northern italy or burgundy (all parts of HRE)

HRE was far from centralized state, we could speculate about historical conditions here, and how its individual parts were more important or less, but I hope, that You understand, what I want to say.

The Bohemian kingdom was not one of “generic” entity withhin HRE, played a special role in medieval history and could be seperate civilisation with these wagons

… and Bohemia was Kingdom (seperate entity) before becoming part of HRE

I agree :slight_smile:

I was very Happy when the bohemians Made it into aoe2 but i dont think they will make IT into aoe4, because we only have big umbrella civs Here (except english )

Aaand Back to the hungarians .

I woild Love to have them in the Game.
They fought against ottomans, rus, HRE, mongols and maybe Future civs Like venetiens and ERE .

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In theory I agree with you, but I don’t believe Bohemia will ever make it into the game given that we have HRE already. So if this is the case, I think the second best way to implement Hussite wagons would be as foreign mercenary units which is how I have chosen to represent them here (not as Hungarian)